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History of Varanasi
Varanasi was known as Kashi Kshetra in the Rigvedic texts. Since the ages it has been regarded as one of the important Pilgrimage centers for Hindus, Jains and Buddhists. The place was formed into an independent city during 18th century.
The earliest mention of the city could be found in Rigveda. Then the great epics of India (The Ramayana and The Mahabharata) talk about this place. Buddha gave his sermon at Saranath which is just 10 m away from Varanasi. The 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism (Parsvanatha) was born here.
From 11th to 17th century Varanasi was under the capture of the Muslim rulers. The city saw a setback during this time due to the invaders. Kingdom of Kashi was established during 18th century. Under the British rule Varanasi was made a separate State in 1910, making Ramanagar its headquarters. The Kashi Naresh is a title of honor bestowed upon the king. Kashi Naresh is the supreme power concerning ritualistic activities there. He stays in Ramanagar fort. The then Kashi Naresh raja Balwant Singh built this fort. After Independence, Varanasi merged with the Indian Union.
On attaining Independence from the British in August 1947, India had to surrender quite a lot of its northern territories for formation of Pakistan, Punjab was also split into two parts with Lahore its biggest city going to Pakistan. Then a need to create a new capital for Punjab led to many options but the most suitable one was creating a new modern city as the capital. This proposal was selected by the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. A Swiss born French architect Le Corbusier was commissioned to design a new city Chandigarh as the capital of Punjab. Later in the year 1966 Haryana state was created from the eastern portions of Punjab. Chandigarh was at the border of both Punjab and Haryana hence it was made a union territory and appointed as the capital for both the states.
Guntur is a city and municipal corporation in the state of Andhra Pradesh. It also serves as head quarter of the district of the same name. Guntur gets its earliest recorded reference from the Indren plate of Ammaraja the Vengi Chalukyan king who ruled the region during 922 to 929 CE. The city also gets its reference in the inscriptions which date back to 1147 and 1158 CE. Garthpuri was the original Sanskrit name of Guntur. Agasthyeswara Sivalayam is temple of Shiva situated in the old city of Guntur. The temple is most famous temple in Guntur and houses inscriptions in Naga scripts which dates back to 1100 CE.
After the arrival of Europeans, Guntur rose to prominence. In 1752 the French moved their head quarter from Kondavid Fort to Guntur and established their settlement there. This settlement later on formed the center of modern city. Nizam and Haider Ali ruled Guntur and surrounding region until 1778 when the region came under the rule of British. Guntur was made a district which was abolished in 1859 only to be reconstituted again in 1904. The city witnessed the railway track being laid in 1890 under the British rule. British continued to rule Guntur until the independence of India in Aug-1947. Post independence era witnessed large scale development in the city. Guntur is at present the fourth largest city of Andhra Pradesh.