History of Pune
History of Pune mainly deals with history of the great Maratha King Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Peshwa. The early history of Pune, according to cooper plates found in excavation, dates back to 6th century. The region at that time was under the rule of Rashtrakutas. Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built in this era. Then from 9th century to 1327 the region was part of the Yadavas kings of Deoghar. Then it was ruled by Nizamshahi Sulatan till it was annexed to the Mughal Empire. In 1595 Maloji Bhosale was appointed as Jahagirdar of Pune by Mughal. Rango Babuji Deshpande who was appointed was by Shahaji Bhosale as the administrator of Pune is regarded as one of the first developers of the city. Under his supervision several constructions works were done in the city. Construction of Lal Mahal Palace was completed in the year 1640. JiJabai the mother of Shivaji is believed to have supervised the work of Kasaba Ganapati Temple in Pune. The idol of lord Ganesha in the temple is considered to be the presiding deity of the city.
It was then Dadoji Kondev, the mentor of Shivaji, supervised the many construction works in the city. Thereafter the Shivaji who was crowned as Chhatrapati Shivaji in 1649 oversaw several development works in Pune. Guruwar Peth, Somwar Peth and Mangalwar Peth are some of places developed under the rule of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Budhwar Peth was constructed by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in the year 1703. After the death of great Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Maratha kingdom was managed by the Peshwas. Peshwa was the post of the minister of the highest rank in Maratha Empire. In 1720 Bajirao the first become the first Peshwa of Maratha under the rule of Chhatrapati Shahuji. The famous palace of Shaniwarwada which is situated in Pune on the banks of Mutha River was constructed in 1730. Later on the Shaniwarwada became the main stay of Peshwas and the city of Pune witnessed many temples bridges and other development work being carried out under the rule of Peshwas. Paravati Temple, Sadashiv Peth, Nana Peth etc were built during this time.
The defeat of Maratha in the third battle of Panipat resulted in to the decline of its empire. In the battle with British in 1817 at Khadki (which was then known as kirki) Maratha has to face the defeat. Pune then was captured by the British and annexed to the Bombay Presidency. Then the British established military cantonment area at the east of the city. The cantonment area is now used by the Indian Army. Pune Municipality was set up in 1858 by the British and the city witnessed other development works like Ganj Peth which was renamed as Mahatma Phule Peth after the independence. Pune continued to be ruled by the British until the independence of India.
During the rule of British in India city of Pune was an important center of political and social movement. Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde and Mahatma Jyotirao Phule are some of the prominent persons who belonged to the city of Pune. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, one of the greatest freedom fighters of India, operated his political movements from Pune. Besides, the Yerwada Jail where Mahatma Gandhi was kept as political prisoner by the British is situated in Pune.
After independence Pune has witnessed tremendous growth. Many prominent institutions like National Defense Academy and National Chemical Laboratory were set up in Pune. The city also has grown into a major sport centre of country and has hosted Common Wealth Games 2008 successfully.